Shipping emissions in ports 2014
Air Pollution, Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
In 1997, a new annex was added to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). The Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships (Annex VI) seek to minimize airborne emissions from ships (SOx, NOx, ODS, VOC) and their contribution to local and global air pollution and environmental problems. Annex VI entered into force on 19 May 2005 and a revised Annex VI with significant tighten emissions limits was adopted in October 2008 which entered into force on 1 July 2010.
The growth of world trade in the future represents a challenge to meeting a target for emissions required to achieve stabilization in global temperatures and so IMO has begun consideration of further technical and operational measures to enhance the energy efficiency of ships.
In 2007, international shipping was estimated to have contributed about 2.7% to the global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). In 2011, IMO adopted mandatory technical and operational energy efficiency measures which are expected to significantly reduce the amount of CO2 emissions from international shipping. These mandatory measures (EEDI/SEEMP) entered into force on 1 January 2013.
IMO has adopted important guidelines aimed at supporting implementation of the mandatory measures to increase energy efficiency and reduce GHG emissions from international shipping, paving the way for the regulations on EEDI and SEEMP to be smoothly implemented by Administrations and industry.
IMO has also adopted a resolution on Promotion of Technical Co-operation and Transfer of Technology relating to the Improvement of Energy Efficiency of Ships and is focusing its efforts on technical co-operation and capacity building to ensure smooth and effective implementation and enforcement of the new regulations worldwide. To that effect, IMO has been undertaking a series of workshops in all regions of the world on implementation of the measures to address GHG emissions from international shipping.
Environmental friendly practices in ports etc… : Port reception facilities
The effectiveness of ships to comply with the discharge requirements of MARPOL depends largely upon the availability of adequate port reception facilities, especially within special areas. Hence, the Annex also obliges Governments to ensure the provision of adequate reception facilities at ports and terminals for the reception of garbage without causing undue delay to ships, and according to the needs of the ships using them.
Port State control
Provisions to extend port State control to cover operational requirements as regards prevention of marine pollution were adopted in 1994 and entered into force on 3 March 1996. Like similar amendments to the other MARPOL Annexes, regulation 9 of Annex V makes it clear that port State control officers can inspect a foreign-flagged vessel at a port or an offshore terminal of its State "where there are clear grounds for believing that the master or crew are not familiar with essential shipboard procedures relating to the prevention of pollution by garbage".
Garbage management plans
All ships of 100 gross tonnage and above, every ship certified to carry 15 persons or more, and every fixed or floating platform will have to carry a garbage management plan, which includes written procedures for minimizing, collecting, storing, processing and disposing of garbage, including the use of the equipment on board (regulation 10.2). The garbage management plan should designate the person responsible for the plan and should be in the working language of the crew. Resolution MEPC.220 (63) provides the 2012 Guidelines for the development of garbage management plans.
The discharge of cargo residues was one of the issues addressed during the review of MARPOL Annex V. Cargo residues are defined as the remnants of any cargo which are not covered by other Annexes to the present Convention and which remain on deck or in holds following loading or unloading. They include loading and unloading excess or spillage, whether in wet or dry condition or entrained in wash water, but do not include cargo dust remaining on deck after sweeping or dust on the external surfaces of the ship (regulation 1.2 of the revised Annex V). In addition to this definition, the revised Annex V also stipulates that only those cargo residues that cannot be recovered using commonly available methods for unloading shall be considered for discharge.
A simplified overview of the regulations regarding the discharge of cargo residues under the revised Annex V can be accessed here. As a general rule, cargo residues which contain substances classified as harmful to the marine environment must not be discharged at sea, but have to be taken to port reception facilities. Regarding the discharge of cargo residues which do not contain any substances classified as harmful to the marine environment, the revised Annex V establishes different requirements depending on whether they are contained in wash water or not.
Solid bulk cargoes should be classified and declared by the shipper as to whether or not they are harmful to the marine environment, in accordance with the criteria set out in paragraph 3.2 of the 2012 Guidelines for the Implementation of MARPOL Annex V. Transitional measures for this classification and declaration could be taken as set out in MEPC.1/Circ.791 on Provisional classification of solid bulk cargoes under the revised MARPOL Annex V between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014 and MEPC.1/Circ.810 on Adequate port reception facilities for cargoes declared as harmful to the marine environment under MARPOL Annex V.
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